Selasa, 04 Februari 2014


Sugar not only makes you fat, it may be killing you.

Consuming too much added sugar — in regular soda, cakes, cookies and candy — increases your risk of death from heart disease, according to a new study, the largest of its type.

"The risk of cardiovascular disease death increases exponentially as you increase your consumption of added sugar," says the study's lead author, Quanhe Yang, a senior scientist with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

On average, adults in the USA in 2010 consumed about 15% of their daily calories — about 300 calories a day, based on a 2,000-calorie diet — from added sugars. That's far more than the American Heart Association's recommendation that women consume no more than 100 calories a day from added sugars, or about 6 teaspoons of sugar; and men consume no more than 150 calories a day, or about 9 teaspoons. The World Health Organization recommends consuming less than 10% of calories from added sugars.

One can of regular soda contains about 140 calories of added sugar. That's about 7% of the daily calories of someone eating 2,000 calories a day, Yang says.

Added sugars include table sugar, brown sugar, high-fructose corn syrup, maple syrup, honey, molasses and other caloric sweeteners in prepared and processed foods and beverages. It does not include sugars that occur naturally in fruits, fruit juice, and milk and dairy products.

Major sources of added sugars in Americans' diets are sugar-sweetened beverages, desserts, fruit drinks, dairy desserts (ice cream) and candy, Yang says.

Other research has tied a high intake of added sugars, especially sugar-sweetened beverages, to many poor health conditions, including obesity, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes and risk factors for heart disease and stroke. Most of those studies focused on sugar-sweetened beverages and not total intake of sugar, Yang says. "Ours is the first study using a nationally representative sample to look at the total amount of added sugar and the association to cardiovascular disease death."

To look at trends in added-sugar intake, Yang and colleagues reviewed data from more than 31,000 people over the years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which evaluates dietary habits based on in-person interviews. They found that most adults (71%) consume 10% or more of their daily calories from added sugars. About 10% of adults consume 25% or more of daily calories from added sugars.

The researchers also looked at data of deaths from heart disease (heart attacks, stroke, heart failure, hypertension), and they compared added-sugar intake to death from heart disease. They controlled their results for a wide range of heart-disease risk factors, including high blood pressure, total cholesterol, smoking, physical activity, diet and weight.

Among their findings, published online Monday in JAMA Internal Medicine:

• People who consumed more than 21% of daily calories from added sugar had double the risk of death from heart disease as those who consumed less than 10% of calories from added sugars.

A person on a 2,000-calorie diet who consumes 21% of their daily calories from added sugar would be eating 420 calories from added sugar, which would be roughly three cans of regular soda a day.

• People who consumed between 17% to 21% of daily calories from added sugar had a 38% higher risk of death from heart disease than people who consumed less than 10% of calories from added sugars.

• People who consumed seven or more servings a week of sugar-sweetened beverages were at a 29% higher risk of death from heart disease than those who consumed one serving or less.

• The findings were consistent across age groups, sex, physical-activity levels, weights and dietary habits.

• Added sugar intake has changed slightly over the past 20 years, from 16% of daily calories in 1994 to 17% in 2004 to 15% in 2010.

The paper's senior author Frank Hu, a professor of nutrition and epidemiology at the Harvard School of Public Health, says excessive intake of added sugar appears to negatively affect health in several ways. It has been linked to the development of high blood pressure, increased triglycerides (blood fats), low HDL (good) cholesterol, fatty liver problems, as well as making insulin less effective in lowering blood sugar.

Rachel Johnson, a spokeswoman for the American Heart Association and a nutrition professor at the University of Vermont, says, "Now we know that too much added sugar doesn't just make us fat, it increases our risk of death from heart disease."

Johnson says people need to cut back on added sugars. "I continue to be amazed at the added sugars that Americans are consuming. Added sugars do one of two things — they either displace nutritious foods in the diet or add empty calories."

In an accompanying editorial in the medical journal, Laura Schmidt of the University of California-San Francisco writes that the study "underscores the likelihood that, at levels of consumption common among Americans, added sugar is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease mortality above and beyond its role as empty calories leading to weight gain and obesity."

Rabu, 23 Oktober 2013

joke

The Policeman and his son

The policeman sits in livingroom and read a newspaper , after that his son coming
“dad, I had a little problem at school today, but I solve it, and here’s your gun back dad”
the policeman “ haaaaa?” (shock)

Rabu, 16 Oktober 2013


My nephew

I have a nephew, his name is Taraka mirza, he’s 10 month old , he is so cute, has a white skin, short black hair, he’s so active and funny. I always play with him every day, because I love him so much like I love my brother, now he’s teething so he have four small teeth, every day he try to talk with baby sign or baby language it so funny, I always talk with him and he responding my question with baby language and that’s make me laughing, even I laughing he laughing too, that’s so funny and make other people laughing too.
so that's my short description about my nephew :)



Rabu, 09 Oktober 2013

Unforgettable moment


Hi guys I have an unforgettable moment, and I will tell you about it.

         Three years ago I and my group won indie movie contest in brawijaya university in malang, The contest followed by participant all over east java, we are to be 8th winner in the contest and I got appreciate for the screenwriter of the movie. I’m so proud got the appreciate and the experience, the title of our movie is banyu bayu, and the theme is “better water, better future” so, we made a movie about water, our movie told about the man who struggle to keep the pristine water on the river, the man think that pristine water can keep our next generation doesn’t lack of pristine water and have healthy life. So, that’s my unforgettable moment J

Selasa, 01 Oktober 2013

my dialy aactivities

I get up early in the morning at four am, after that i take a bath and pray subuh.. after all i change my clothes and have breakfast with my family.. my brother like cereal so much,and i like fried rice so do my parents,sometime I ate fried rice in the morning. My father goes to work by car, and my mother is house wife, my brother and me goes to school by a motor cycle, i school in muhammadiyah university and i took english education in my university.. my brother is still in junior high school,i finished the lesson  at twelve pm,my brother and i took a English course,we have the course on Monday until Thursday we are start from one pm until three pm , after all we are go home and take a rest in the evening my mother serve some food and we are get ready for dinner.
Sometimes every weekend we are visit our grandparents house, and had picnic, when we are picnic we are went to mountain or beach, because that place can relax our mind, on the other hand when my parents felt so tiered we will spend our weekend just stay at home, and did some activities, like watched movies, read books, played video games and played at our backyard.

So that’s my daily activities on every week :)

Minggu, 14 April 2013

phonetic symbol

Consonants
p
pen, copy, happen
b
back, baby, job
t
tea, tight, button
d
day, ladder, odd
k
key, clock, school
g
get, giggle, ghost
church, match, nature
judge, age, soldier
f
fat, coffee, rough, photo
v
view, heavy, move
θ
thing, author, path
ð
this, other, smooth
s
soon, cease, sister
z
zero, music, roses, buzz
ʃ
ship, sure, national
ʒ
pleasure, vision
h
hot, whole, ahead
m
more, hammer, sum
n
nice, know, funny, sun
ŋ
ring, anger, thanks, sung
l
light, valley, feel
r
right, wrong, sorry, arrange
j
yet, use, beauty, few
w
wet, one, when, queen
ʔ
(glottal stop)
department, football
Vowels
ɪ
kit, bid, hymn, minute
e
dress, bed, head, many
æ
trap, bad
ɒ
lot, odd, wash
ʌ
strut, mud, love, blood
ʊ
foot, good, put
fleece, sea, machine
face, day, break
price, high, try
ɔɪ
choice, boy
goose, two, blue, group
əʊ
goat, show, no
mouth, now
ɪə
near, here, weary
square. fair, various
ɑː
start, father
ɔː
thought, law, north, war
ʊə
poor, jury, cure
ɜː
nurse, stir, learn, refer
ə
about, common, standard
i
happy, radiate. glorious
u
thank you, influence, situation
suddenly, cotton
middle, metal
ˈ
(stress mark)

organ speech

The various organs which are involved in the production of speech sounds are called speech organs (also known as vocal organs). The study of speech organs helps to determine the role of each organ in the production of speech sounds. They include the lungs, the vocal folds, and most importantly thearticulators.

1. The Lungs

The airflow is by far the most vital requirement for producing speech sound, since all speech sounds are made with some movement of air. The lungs provide the energy source for the airflow. The lungs are the spongy respiratory organs situated inside the rib cage. They expand and contract as we breathe in and out air. The amount of air accumulated inside our lungs controls the pressure of the airflow.

The Lungs

2. The Larynx & the Vocal Folds

The larynx is colloquially known as the voice box. It is a box-like small structure situated in the front of the throat where there is a protuberance. For this reason the larynx is popularly called the Adam’s apple. This casing is formed of cartilages and muscles. It protects as well as houses the trachea (also known as windpipeoesophagusesophagus) and the vocal folds (formerly they were called vocal cords). The vocal folds are like a pair of lips placed horizontally from front to back. They are joined in the front but can be separated at the back. The opening between them is called glottis. The glottis is considered to be in open state when the folds are apart, and when the folds are pressed together the glottis is considered to be in close state.




The opening of the vocal folds takes different positions:
  1. Wide Apart: When the folds are wide apart they do not vibrate. The sounds produced in such position are called breathed or voiceless sounds. For example: /p/f/θ/s/.
  2. Narrow Glottis: If the air is passed through the glottis when it is narrowed then there is an audible friction. Such sounds are also voiceless since the vocal folds do not vibrate. For example, in English /h/ is avoiceless glottal fricative sound.
  3. Tightly Closed: The vocal folds can be firmly pressed together so that the air cannot pass between them. Such a position produces a glottal stop / ʔ / (also known as glottal catchglottal plosive).
  4. Touched or Nearly Touched: The major role of the vocal folds is that of a vibrator in the production of speech. The folds vibrate when these two are touching each other or nearly touching. The pressure of the air coming from the lungs makes them vibrate. This vibration of the folds produces a musical note called voice. And sounds produced in such manner are called voiced sounds. In English all the vowel soundsand the consonants /v/z/m/n/are voiced.

Thus it is clear that the main function of the vocal folds is to convert the air delivered by the lungs into audible sound. The opening and closing process of the vocal folds manipulates the airflow to control the pitch and the tone of speech sounds. As a result, we have different qualities of sounds.

3. The Articulators

Articulators transform the sound into intelligible speech. They can be either active or passive. They include the pharynx, the teeth, the alveolar ridge behind them, the hard palate, the softer velum behind it, the lips, the tongue, and the nose and its cavity. Traditionally the articulators are studied with the help of a sliced human head figure like the following:



(i) The Pharynx: The pharynx lies between the mouth and the food passage, that is, just above the larynx. It is just about 7cm long in the case of women and 8cm long in the case of men.

(ii) The Roof of the Mouth: The roof of the mouth is considered as a major speech organ. It is divided into three parts:

a. The Alveolar Ridge/Teeth Ridge: The alveolar ridge is situated immediately after the upper front teeth. The sounds which are produced touching this convex part are calledalveolarsounds. Some alveolar sounds in English include: /t/d/.

b. The Hard Palate: The hard palate is the concave part of the roof of the mouth. It is situated on the middle part of the roof.

c. The Velum or Soft Palate: The lower part of the roof of the mouth is called soft palate. It could be lowered or raised. When it is lowered, the air stream from the lungs has access to the nasal cavity. When it is raised the passage to the nasal cavity is blocked. The sounds which are produced touching this area with the back of the tongue are called velarsounds. For example: /k/g/.

(iii) The Lips: The lips also play an important role in the matter of articulation. They can be pressed together or brought into contact with the teeth. The consonant sounds which are articulated by touching two lips each other are called bilabial sounds. For example, /p/ and /b/ are bilabial sounds in English. Whereas, the sounds which are produced with lip to teeth contact are calledlabiodental sounds. In English there are two labiodental sounds: /f/ and /v/.

Another important thing about the lips is that they can take different shapes and positions. Therefore, lip-rounding is considered as a major criterion for describing vowel sounds. The lips may have the following positions:

a. Rounded: When we pronounce a vowel, our lips can be rounded, a position where the corners of the lips are brought towards each other and the lips are pushed forwards. And the resulting vowel from this position is a rounded one. For example, /ə ʊ/.

b. Spread: The lips can be spread. In this position the lips are moved away from each other (i.e. when we smile). The vowel that we articulate from this position is an unrounded one. For example, in English /i: /is a long vowel with slightly spread lips.

c. Neutral: Again, the lips can be neutral, a position where the lips are not noticeably rounded or spread. And the articulated vowel from this position is referred to as unrounded vowel. For example, in English /ɑ: / is a long vowel with neutral lips.

(iv) The Teeth: The teeth are also very much helpful in producing various speech sounds. The sounds which are made with the tongue touching the teeth are called dental sounds. Some examples of dental sounds in English include: /θ/ð/.

(v) The Tongue: The tongue is divided into four parts:

a. The tip: It is the extreme end of the tongue.
b. The blade: It lies opposite to the alveolar ridge.
c. The front: It lies opposite to the hard palate.
d. The back: It lies opposite to the soft palate or velum.

The tongue is responsible for the production of many speech sounds, since it can move very fast to different places and is also capable of assuming different shapes. The shape and the position of the tongue are especially crucial for the production of vowel sounds. Thus when we describe the vowel sounds in the context of the function of the tongue, we generally consider the following criteria:

• Tongue Height: It is concerned with the vertical distance between the upper surface of the tongue and the hard palate. From this perspective the vowels can be described as close andopen. For instance, because of the different distance between the surface of the tongue and the roof of the mouth, the vowel /i: /has to be described as a relatively close vowel, whereas /æ / has to be described as a relatively open vowel.

• Tongue Frontness / Backness: It is concerned with the part of tongue between the front and the back, which is raised high. From this point of view the vowel sounds can be classified asfront vowels and back vowels. By changing the shape of the tongue we can produce vowels in which a different part of the tongue is the highest point. That means, a vowel having the back of the tongue as the highest point is a back vowel, whereas the one having the front of the tongue as the highest point is called a front vowel. For example: during the articulation of the vowel / u: / the back of the tongue is raised high, so it’s a back vowel. On the other hand, during the articulation of the vowel / æ / the front of the tongue is raise high, therefore, it’s afront vowel.

(vi) The Jaws: Some phoneticians consider the jaws as articulators, since we move the lower jaw a lot at the time of speaking. But it should be noted that the jaws are not articulators in the same way as the others. The main reason is that they are incapable of making contact with other articulators by themselves.

(vii) The Nose and the Nasal Cavity: The nose and its cavity may also be considered as speech organs. The sounds which are produced with the nose are called nasal sounds. Some nasal sounds in English include: /m/n/ŋ/.

References

Harmer, Jeremy. The Practice of English Language Teaching. 3rd ed. England: Longman-
Pearson, 2001. 28-35.

Yule, George. The Study of Language. 2nd ed. Cambridge: CUP, 1996. 40-50.

Varshney, Dr. R.L.  An Introduction of Linguistics & Phonetics. Dhaka: BOC, n.d. 38-42.